Disease X is a term coined by the World Health Organization (WHO) to refer to a hypothetical disease that could cause the next global pandemic. It is not a specific disease or virus, but rather a potential novel infectious agent that could trigger a new pandemic. The concept of Disease X emerged in 2018 when the WHO included it in its list of priority diseases for research and development, highlighting the need for proactive measures to prevent and respond to future pandemics. Experts warn that Disease X could result in 20 times more fatalities than COVID-19, with an estimated 50 million deaths worldwide. As world leaders express concern over the potential threat, pandemic preparedness becomes crucial. Strategies for pandemic readiness range from surveillance and monitoring systems to rapid response teams, vaccines, and antiviral drugs, reinforcing healthcare systems, enhancing laboratory capacity, and public health communication. The ongoing situation with COVID-19 highlights the importance of global health security and the need to be proactive in protecting public health. Investing in pandemic readiness is essential for future outbreaks and global well-being. Governments, international organizations, and individuals must prioritize pandemic readiness to ensure a healthier and safer future.